Glossary

Name Source Description
A.U. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Abbr. Animal-UnitSyn. basal cover

A.U.M. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Abbr. animal-unit-month

A.U.Y. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Abbr. animal-unit-year

Abiotic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Non-living components of an ecosystem; basic elements and compounds of the environment. cf. biota, biomass

Abundance (Rangeland) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The total number of individuals of a species in an area, population, or community.

Accessibility (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ease with which an area can be reached by people or penetrated and grazed by animals. The ease with which herbivores can reach plants or plant parts.

Acclimatized Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An introduced species which has become adapted to a new climate or a different environment and can perpetuate itself in the community without cultural treatment. cf. exotic, introduced species.

Acid Equivalent Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The amount of toxicant in a pesticide expressed in terms of the parent acid or the amount that theoretically can be converted to the parent acid. Abbr. a.e.

Active ingredient Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Chemical or chemicals in a prepared product responsible for the desired effects (generally pest control). Abbr. a.i.

Adjudication Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The allocation of rights or privileges following a hearing of conflicting claims either by a court or a hearing board. May refer to grazing, water, or any other rights or privileges. (2) The apportionment of grazing use on public range among eligible applicants.

Adjustment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Change in animal numbers, seasons of use, kinds or classes of animals, or management practices as warranted by specific conditions.

Administrative Site Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Work center or other area reserved for administrative purposes.

Aerial Photograph Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A photograph of the earth's surface taken from airborne equipment, sometime called aerial photo or air photograph.

Aftermath Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forage available after harvest.

Age-Class Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A descriptive term to indicate the relative age of plants. (2) Refers to age and class of animal.

Agro-silvo-pastoral Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural crops, forage crops, and livestock production.

Agroforestry Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production.

Air-Dry Weight Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The weight of a substance after it has been allowed to dry to equilibrium with the atmosphere.

Alienated Land Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land.

Allelopathy Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Chemical inhibition of one organism by another.

Allotment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A rangeland and/or forestland area designated for the use of a prescribed number and kind of livestock under one plan of management. cf. community allotment

Allotment Management Plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A long-term operating plan for a grazing allotment on public land prepared and agreed to by the permittee and appropriate agency.

Alluvium Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Sediments deposited by streams, rivers, and moving waters.

Alternate Stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocks in succession.

Amortizing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process of paying initial costs plus subsequent interest costs over a payment period, usually in equal periodic installments.

Animal Substitution Ratio Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A numerical ratio of numbers, units or stocking levels of one animal species to another or in partitioning grazing capacity between two animal species. Such a ratio is site-specific since it is based on a unique set of environmental, forage, animal-herbage, and animal-area variables and requires knowledge of relative animal population levels.

Animal Unit Conversion Factor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit.

Animal-Day Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One day's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month.

Animal-Demand Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Energy requirement of ungulate herbivores based only on animal-related factors such as body size, stage of life cycle, production stage, etc.

Animal-Month Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A month's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month.

Animal-Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Considered to be one mature cow of about 1,000 pounds (450 kg), either dry or with calf up to 6 months of age, or their equivalent, consuming about 26 pounds (12 kg) of forage/day on an oven-dry basis. Abbr. AU. cf. animal-unit-equivalent

Animal-Unit-Day Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The forage demand (amount of forage) on an oven-dry basis required by one animal unit for a period of one day. Abbr. AUD

Animal-Unit-Equivalent Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A number relating the forage dry matter intake (oven-dry basis) of a particular kind or class of animal relative to one AU. If intake is not known, it can be estimated from the ratio of the metabolic weight of the animal in question to the metabolic weight of one AU (450 kg to the .75 power). Abbr. AUE

Animal-Unit-Month Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The amount of oven-dry forage (forage demand) required by one animal unit for a standardized period of 30 animal-unit-days. Not synonymous with animal month. Abbr. AUM. The term AUM is commonly used in three ways: (a) stocking rate, as in "X acres per AUM"; (b) forage allocations, as in "X AUMs in Allotment A"; (c) utilization, as in "X AUMs taken from Unit B."

Animal-Unit-Year Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Equal to 12 AUMs. Abbr. AUY

Annual Grassland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

California annual grasslands being managed as annual range and showing no trend in successional status.

Annual License or Permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit

Annual Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less.

Annual Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range on which the principal forage plants are self-perpetuating annual, herbaceous species.

Apical dominance Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The suppression of lateral (side) branches by the apical (topmost) shoot, or apex, of the plant.

Apparent Trend Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An interpretation of trend based on observation and professional judgment at a single point in time.

Aquifer (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A geologic formation capable of transmitting water through its pores at a rate sufficient for water supply purposes. The term water-bearing is sometime used synonymously with aquifer when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractures, caverns or vesicular rock.

Area Ignition (Firestorm) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The practice of simultaneous ignition of fuel over an area planned to be burned under prescription or the natural occurrence/phenomenon of the same.

Arid Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A term applied to regions or climates where lack of sufficient moisture severely limits growth and production of vegetation. The limits of precipitation vary considerably according to temperature conditions, with an upper annual limit for cool regions of 10 inches or less and for tropical regions as much as 15 to 20 inches. cf. semiarid

Arroyo Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The term used for large gully in Southwestern USA. Syn., coulee, gully

Aspect Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The visual first impression of vegetation or a landscape at a particular time or as seen from a specific point. (2) The predominant direction of slope of the land. (3) The seasonal changes in the appearance of vegetation.

Association Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. plant association

Autecology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A subdivision of ecology that deals with the relationship of individuals of a species to their environment. cf. synecology

Autogate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Cattleguard

Auxin Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant hormone promoting or regulating growth.

Available Forage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

cf. forage allowance, forage mass

Available water

The amount of water held in the soil that can be extracted by plants. Also, the difference in the amount of water contained in soil at field capacity and the amount at the permanent wilting point.

Avulsion (riparian)

The sudden removal of land from one segment and joining it to another as a result of erosion caused by inundation or current. Also, a sudden change in the course of a river, by which a portion of land is cut off, as where a river changes course to form an oxbow.

Azonal Soil Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A soil lacking a well-defined profile.

Backfiring Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Ignition of a fire on the leeward (downwind) side of a burn area, resulting in a slow moving ground fire. cf. headfiring

Badland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A land type consisting of steep or very steep barren land, usually broken by an intricate maze of narrow ravines, sharp crests, and pinnacles resulting from serious erosion of soft geologic materials. Most common in arid or semiarid regions. A miscellaneous land type.

Balanced Operation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A range livestock enterprise which provides sufficient feed and forage resources during each season to promote continuous satisfactory maintenance and production of its livestock and game.

Band Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any number of sheep handled as a unit attended by a herder. cf. consolidated, drop, dayband, flock

Band-Day Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Tenure by a band of sheep of a given size and class for one day.

Bare Ground Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

All land surface not covered by vegetation, rock or litter. cf. ground cover

Barren (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

1) (n.) Any area devoid of vegetation or practically so. (2) (adj.) A term to describe a mature female animal which is incapable of producing offspring.

Barrier Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A physical obstruction which limits the movement of animals.

Basal Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The cross sectional area of the stem or stems of a plant or of all plants in a stand. Herbaceous and small woody plants are measured at or near the ground level; larger woody plants are measured at breast or other designated height.

Basal Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. basal area, cover

Base Property Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Those lands in a ranching enterprise which are owned or under long-term control of the operator.

Bed Ground Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area where animals sleep and rest.

Bedrock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

In-place, solid rock exposed at the surface of the earth or overlain by unconsolidated material.

Bench Mark Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A permanent reference point. (2) In range inventory, it is used as a point where changes in vegetation through time are measured. (3) In soils, it is used to designate a major soil series which is representative of similar soils. (4) In economics, data that are used as a base for comparative purposes with similar data. (5) A surveyor's mark made on a permanent landmark that has known position and altitude.

Bentonite Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A natural clay deposit which has high swelling capabilities when saturated; used to seal earthen stockponds.

Biennial Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant that lives for two years, producing vegetative growth the first year and usually blooming and fruiting in the second year and then dying.

Biocide Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A chemical toxic or lethal to living organisms.

Biodegradable Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Capable of being decomposed by natural processes.

Biogeochemical Cycle Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The cyclical system through which a given chemical element is transferred between biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere.

Biomass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The total amount of living plants and animals above and below ground in an area at a given time.

Biome Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A major biotic unit consisting of plant and animal communities having similarities in form and environmental conditions, but not including the abiotic portion of the environment.

Biota Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

All the species of plants and animals occurring within an area or region.

Biotic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Refers to living components of an ecosystem, e.g., plants and animals.

Biotype Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A group of individuals within a population occurring in nature, all with essentially the same genetic constitution. A species usually consists of many biotypes. cf. ecotype

Blowout Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) An excavation in areas of loose soil, usually sand, produced by wind. (2) A breakthrough or rupture of a soil surface attributable to hydraulic pressure, usually associated with sand boils.

Brand (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) (v.) To mark the skin or wool of an animal in a distinctive pattern, by use of a hot or cold iron, chemical, paint, or other means to designate ownership or to identify individual animals for registration or management purposes. cf. marking, tagging, (2) (n.) The mark so made.

Breeding Herd Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The animals retained for breeding purposes to provide for the perpetuation of the herd or band. Excludes animals being prepared for market.

Broadcast Seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Process of scattering seed on the surface of the soil prior to natural or artificial means of covering the seed with soil. cf. drill seeding

Browse Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(n.) The part of shrubs, woody vines and trees available for animal consumption. (v.) To search for or consume browse.

Browse Line Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A well-defined height to which browse has been removed by animals. cf. highlining

Browseway Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A lane built through a dense brushland or brush thicket to provide access by herbivores and man and/or to encourage browse rejuvenation. cf. sendero

Brush First definition from: Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

1. A term encompassing various species of shrubs or small trees usually considered undesirable for livestock or timber management. The same species may have value for browse, wildlife habitat, or watershed protection. 2. In viticultural usage, the broken ends of vascular bundles that remain attached to the pedicel when a berry is pulled off of a cluster, or the prunings left in a vine row.

Brush Control Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Reduction of unwanted woody plants through fire, chemicals, mechanical methods, or biological means to achieve desired land management goals.

Brush Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Manipulating woody plant cover to obtain desired quantities and types of woody cover and/or to reduce competition with herbaceous understory vegetation, in accordance with ecologically sound resource management objectives.

Brushland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area covered primarily with brush, i.e., shrubland.

Buck-Fence Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A fence constructed of wooden poles fastened horizontally to wooden cross-members. Such fences withstand heavy snows in mountainous regions, and eliminate the need for digging holes for posts in rock terrain. Also called buck-pole fence.

Bucking Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

In certain localities, range selected for placing rams with ewes.

Buffalo Wallow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A small natural depression of prairie occasionally containing standing water and having vegetation different from that of the surrounding area.

Bunch Grass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A grass having the characteristic growth habit of forming a bunch; lacking stolons or rhizomes. cf. sod grass

Burn Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area over which fire has recently passed.

Butte Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An isolated hill with relatively steep sides. cf. mesa

C-3 Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant employing the pentose phosphate pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a cool-season plant.

C-4 Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant employing the dicarboxylic acid pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a warm season plant.

Cabling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of a large cable pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. chaining

Cactus Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A spiny, succulent plant of the Cactaceae family.

Calf Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The number of calves weaned from a given number of cows exposed to breeding, usually expressed in percent, i.e., number of calves weaned {divided by} number of cows exposed x 100 = percent calf crop. cf. kid crop, lamb crop

Caliche Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A layer in the soil horizon more or less cemented by secondary carbonates of calcium or magnesium precipitated from the soil solution. It may occur as a soil, thin soil horizon, as a hard, thick bed just beneath the solum, or as a surface layer exposed by erosion. Not a geologic deposit. (2) Alluvium cemented with sodium nitrate, chloride, and/or other soluble salts as in the nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru.

Camp Tender Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who transports supplies to a herder and moves the supply camp from place to place on the range.

Camp Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A subdivision of a sheep allotment on federally owned land. The camp tender may have the camp in one location several days to service the herder, who tents on a different bed ground each night with the camp unit.

Canopy (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The vertical projection downward of the aerial portion of vegetation, usually expressed as a percent of the ground so occupied. (2) The aerial portion of the overstory vegetation. cf. canopy cover

Canopy Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The percentage of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of foliage of plants. Small openings within the canopy are included. It may exceed 100%. Syn. crown cover

Capability Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. ecological response unit

Carrying Capacity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The average number of livestock and/or wildlife that may be sustained on a management unit compatible with management objectives for the unit. In addition to site characteristics, it is a function of management goals and management intensity. (SRM) The amount of forage produced annually in a management unit is only one attribute used to determine carrying capacity. The forage also has to be available to the animals. On many rangelands, the carrying capacity may be less than forage production would indicate because parts of the management unit are inaccessible to grazing animals. In essence, forage is present but unavailable.

Catchment Basin Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Raintrap

Cattle Walkway Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Walkway

Cattleguard Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A device or structure, at points where roads or railroads cross a fence line, that is so designed that vehicular travel is uninterrupted but crossing by all kinds of livestock is restricted. Syn. Autogate

Cell Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A grazing arrangement comprised of numerous subdivisions (paddocks or pastures) often formed by electrical fencing, with a central component to facilitate livestock management and movement to the various subdivisions. Normally used to facilitate a form of controlled grazing. cf. paddock

Chaining Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of a large ship anchor chain pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. cabling

Chaparral (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A shrub community composed of sclerophyllous species. (2) A dense thicket of stiff or thorny shrubs or dwarf trees.

Chiseling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Breaking or loosening the soil, without inversion, with a chisel cultivator or chisel plow. A practice used for grassland or pasture renovation. cf. ripping

Class of Animal Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Description of age and/or sex-group for a particular kind of animal. Example, cow, calf, yearling, ewe, doe, fawn, etc.

Classification Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The assignment of items or concepts into classes based on similarity of selected attributes.

Claypan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A dense compact layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlaying material from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary; formed by downward movement of clay or by synthesis of clay in place during soil formation. Claypans are usually hard when dry and plastic and sticky when wet. They usually impede the movement of water and air. cf. hardpan

Climate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The long-term manifestations of weather (2) The statistical collection and representation of weather conditions for a specified area during a specified time interval, usually decades, together with a description of the state of the external system or boundary conditions. Properties that characterize climate are thermal (temperatures of the surface air, water, land, and ice), kinetic (wind and ocean currents, together with associated vertical motions and the motions of air masses, aqueous humidity, cloudiness and cloud water content, groundwater, lake lands, and water content of snow on land and sea ice), and static (pressure and density of the atmosphere and ocean, composition of the dry air, salinity of the oceans, and the geometric boundaries and physical constants of the system); these properties are interconnected by various physical processes such as precipitation, evaporation, infrared radiation, convection, advection, and turbulence.

Climax Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The final or stable biotic community in a successional series; it is self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the physical habitat.

Clone Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A group of plants, growing in close association, derived by asexual reproduction from a single parent plant. Such plants are therefore of the same genetic constitution. (2) Genetically identical plants, usually obtained from asexual propagation methods.

Close Herding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Handling a herd in a closely bunched manner, restricting the natural spread of the animals when grazing.

Closed Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any area closed to certain types of use for management purposes.

Closed Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any range on which livestock grazing or other specified use is prohibited. cf. livestock exclusion

Cold Stratification Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Keeping seed in a cool, moist environment for a period of time to simulate overwintering thereby reducing dormancy and increasing seed germination.

Commensurability Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Capacity of a permittee's base ranch property to support permitted livestock during the period such livestock are off public land.

Commensurate Property Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land or controlled livestock water which qualifies a person for a grazing privilege, permit, or preference on the other land, either public or private.

Common Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing the current year's forage production by more than one kind of grazing animal either at the same time or at different seasons. cf. dual use

Community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A general term for an assemblage of plants and/or animals living together and interacting among themselves in a specific location; no particular successional status is implied.

Community (Plant Community) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, while denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation.

Community Allotment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An allotment upon which several permittees graze livestock in common.

Community Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An aggregation of all plant communities with similar structure and floristic composition. A unit of vegetation within a classification with no particular successional status implied.

Companion Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A crop sown with another crop (perennial forage or trees or shrubs) that is allowed to mature and provide a return in the first year. cf. nurse crop.

Comparison Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area with a documented history and/or condition that is used as a standard for comparison.

Competition (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The interaction between organisms as a result of the removal or reduction of a common, required resource from the environment. Resources may include water, nutrients, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food and shelter.

Complementary Pasture Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Short-term forage crop (not necessarily annual) planted for use by domestic stock to enhance the management and productivity of the ranch.

Complete Protection Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The exclusion of all grazing animals from an area, usually for an extended period of time.

Composition Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. species composition

Concentrate Feed Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grains or their products and other processed food materials that contain a high proportion of nutrients and are low in fiber and water.

Conservation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use and management of natural resources according to principles that assure their sustained economic and/or social benefits without impairment of environmental quality.

Conservation District Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A public organization created under state enabling law as a special-purpose district to develop and carry out a program of a soil, water, and related resource conservation, use, and development within its boundaries. Usually a subdivision of state government with a local governing body and always with limited authorities. Often called a soil conservation district or a soil and water conservation district.

Conservation Plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The recorded decisions of a landowner or operator, cooperating with a conservation district, on how he/she plans, within practical limits, to use his/her land according to its capability and to treat it according to its needs for maintenance or improvement of the soil, water, and plant resources.

Consolidated Band Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A band of sheep made up of several small bands.

Constancy Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The percentage occurrence of a species within a given community type.

Consumers Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Heterotrophic organisms, chiefly animals, that ingest other organisms or particulate organic matter.

Consumption (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Dietary intake based on (1) amounts of specific forages and other feedstuffs, or (2) amounts of specific nutrients.

Contact herbicide

An herbicide that kills primarily by contact with plant tissue rather than as a result of translocation; also called non-systemic. Only the portions of the plant which came into contact with the herbicide will be affected.

Continuous Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The grazing of a specific unit by livestock throughout a year or for that part of the year during which grazing is feasible. The term is not necessarily synonymous with yearlong grazing, since seasonal grazing may be involved. A preferred term is continuous stocking.

Continuous Stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. The length of the grazing period should be defined. cf. rotational stocking, set stocking

Contour Furrow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plowed or listed strip, commonly 8 to 18 inches deep and wide, made parallel to the horizontal contour for the purpose of water retention and reduction of soil erosion.

Control (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(PLANT) Manipulation and management for reduction of noxious plants, a term of many degrees ranging from slightly limiting to nearly complete replacement.

Controlled Burning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. prescribed burning

Conversion Factor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A factor by which stocking rates are partitioned according to the kind or class of animal based on energy requirements. cf. animal-unit

Cool-Season Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant which generally makes the major portion of its growth during the late fall, winter, and early spring. Cool-season species generally exhibit the C-3 photosynthetic pathway. cf. warm-season plant

Coordinated Resource Management Planning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process whereby various user groups are involved in discussion of alternate resource uses and collectively diagnose management problems, establish goals and objectives, and evaluate multiple use resource management.

Corral Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A small enclosure for handling livestock.

Coulee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The term used for a deep gulch or ravine in the northern USA.

Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead, on the surface of the ground. Vegetative cover or herbage cover is composed of living plants and litter cover of dead parts of plants. Syn. foliar cover (2) The area of ground covered by plants of one or more species. cf. basal area

Cover Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The existing vegetation of an area.

Creep Feeding (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Supplemental feeding of suckling livestock in such a manner that the feed is not available to the mothers or other mature livestock.

Creep Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The practice of allowing juvenile animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time.

Critical Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area which must be treated with special consideration because of inherent site factors, size, location, condition, values, or significant potential conflicts among uses.

Cropland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops. cf. forage crop

Cryptogam Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant in any of the groups Thallophytes, Bryophytes, and Pteridophytes - mosses, lichens, and ferns.

Cultivar Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(Derived from cultivated variety). A named variety selected within a plant species. Distinguished by any morphological, physiological, cytological, or chemical characteristics. A variety of plant produced and maintained by cultivation which is genetically retained through subsequent generations.

Cumulative Herbage Disappearance Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The amount of herbage that disappears from the standing crop because of grazing, senescence, or other causes over some period of time. Unit: kg/ha, lbs/acre. cf. herbage disappearance rate

Cured Forage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forage, either standing or harvested, that has been naturally or artificially dried and preserved for future use. cf. stockpiling

Cut Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) (v.) To separate one or more animals from the herd or band. (n.) The animal(s) so separated. (2) To reduce livestock grazing, particularly on a public land allotment.

Cut-Back Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Animals refused by a buyer because of failure to meet specifications. (2) Animals removed from a higher to a lower classification in sorting for a specific purpose.

DBH Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Abbr. diameter at breast height of a tree

Death Loss Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The number of animals in a herd that die from various natural and accidental causes. Usually expressed as a percentage.

Debris Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Accumulated plant and animal remains.

Deciduous (Plant) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Plant parts, particularly leaves, that are shed at regular intervals, or at a given stage of development, i.e. a deciduous plant regularly loses or sheds its leaves. cf. evergreen

Decomposer Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Heterotrophic organisms, chiefly the microorganisms, that break down the bodies of dead animals or parts of dead plants and absorb some of the decomposition products while releasing similar compounds usable by producers.

Decreaser Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

For a given plant community, those species that decrease in amount as a result of a specific abiotic/biotic influence or management practice.

Deferment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The delay of grazing to achieve a specific management objective. A strategy aimed at providing time for plant reproduction, establishment of new plants, restoration of plant vigor, a return to environmental conditions appropriate for grazing, or the accumulation of forage for later use. cf. deferred grazing, rotational deferred

Deferred Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The deferment of grazing in a nonsystematic rotation with other land units. cf. deferment

Deferred-Rotation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any grazing system, which provides for a systematic rotation of the deferment among pastures.

Defoliation (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The removal of plant leaves, i.e., by grazing or browsing, cutting, chemical defoliant, or natural phenomena such as hail, fire, or frost.

Degree of Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The proportion of current year's forage production that is consumed and/or destroyed by grazing animals. May refer either to a single species or the vegetation as a whole. Syn. Use

Density Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Numbers of individuals or stems per unit area. Density does not equate to any kind of cover measurement.

Dependent Property Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Property generally associated with other lands for year-round livestock operation. cf. commensurate property

Desert Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land on which the vegetation is absent or sparse, often shrubby, and characterized by an arid climate.

Desertification Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process by which an area or region becomes more arid through loss of soil and vegetative cover. The process is often accelerated by excessive continuous overstocking and drought.

Desirable Plant Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Species which contribute positively to the management objectives.

Desired Plant Community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Of the several plant communities that may occupy a site, the one that has been identified through a management plan to best meet the plan's objectives for the site. It must protect the site as a minimum.

Detritus Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Fragmented particulate organic matter derived from the decomposition of debris.

Dietary Essentials (Nutrient) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Nutrients that must be orally ingested, in contrast to those which can be manufactured or converted in the animal, such as through microbial symbiosis in the rumen.

Dipping Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) Immersing animals in specific solutions to control insects or disease.

Dipping Vat Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A trough made of concrete, wood, or metal for holding solutions in which animals are dipped.

Discounting Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process of determining the present value of a stream of future financial returns.

Diurnal (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Active during daylight hours.

Diversity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The distribution and abundance of different plants and animal communities within an area.

Docking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) To surgically shorten an animal's tail

Dogie Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Orphan

Dominant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Plant species or species groups, which by means of their number, coverage, or size, have considerable influence or control upon the conditions of existence of associated species. (2) Those individual animals which, by their aggressive behavior or otherwise, determine the behavior of one or more animals resulting in the establishment of a social hierarchy.

Drag Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Animals composing the rear of a moving herd. (2) An implement used for control of vegetation, e.g., chain drag.

Draw Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A natural watercourse, including the channel and adjacent areas on either side, which may occasionally overflow or receive extra water from higher adjacent areas; generally having intermittent flows associated with higher intensity rainfall.

Drenching Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) Giving orally a forced dose of a specific solution to an animal, usually to control internal parasites.

Drift Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) (1) The movement of materials by wind or water. (2) the natural movement of animals. (n.) Vegetative material moved and deposited by wind and water. cf. spray drift

Drift Fence Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An open-ended fence used to retard or alter the natural movement of livestock; generally used in connection with natural barriers.

Drill Seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Planting seed directly into the soil with a drill in rows, usually 6 to 24 inches apart. cf. broadcast seeding

Drip Torch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Portable equipment for applying flammable liquids giving a residual flame upon ignition; primarily used in prescribed burning.

Drive Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The moving of livestock under human direction. In cowboy parlance, the term drift is often used in lieu of drive when animals are slowly urged in a certain direction.

Driveway Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A strip of land specifically designated for the controlled movement of livestock.

Drop Band Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A band of ewes that is giving birth or is expected to give birth within a few days.

Drouth (Drought) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A prolonged chronic shortage of water, as compared to the norm, often associated with high temperatures and winds during spring, summer and fall. (2) A period without precipitation during which the soil water content is reduced to such an extent that plants suffer from lack of water.

Dry Band Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A band of ewes without lambs.

Dry Meadow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A meadow dominated by grasses which is characterized by soils which become moderately dry by mid-summer. cf. meadow and wet meadow

Dual Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing the current year's forage production by two species of grazing animals at the same time. cf. common use

Dugout Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) An artificially constructed depression that collects and stores water and differs from a reservoir in that a dam is not relied upon to impound water. cf. stockpond. (2) A large hole dug in the ground, frequently on the side of a hill, and often covered with logs and sod, used as a dwelling or shelter.

Ear Marking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process of removing parts of the ears of livestock so as to leave a distinctive pattern for the purpose of designating ownership and identification.

Ecesis Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Establishment and development of a plant in the community.

Ecological Response Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A unit of land that is homogenous in character such that similar units will respond in the same way to disturbance or manipulation. Syn. ecological site, ecological type

Ecological Site Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A kind of land with specific physical characteristics which differs from other kinds of land in its ability to produce distinctive kinds and amounts of vegetation and in its response to management. Apparently synonymous with ecological type used by USFS.

Ecological Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. ecological site

Ecology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment.

Economic Enterprise Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. economic ranch firm

Economic Ranch Firm Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A ranch business of sufficient earning capacity to provide an accepted standard of living for a family. Syn. economic enterprise

Ecosystem Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Organisms together with their abiotic environment, forming an interacting system, inhabiting an identifiable space.

Ecotone Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A transition area of vegetation between two communities, having characteristics of both kinds of neighboring vegetation as well as characteristics of its own. Varies in width depending on site and climatic factors. cf. edge effect

Ecotype

A genetically differentiated subpopulation (race) that is restricted or adapted to a specific habitat 1. most differences among ecotypes are observed only when different ecotypes are tested in a common environment, 2. ecotypes are generally subdivided into races, e.g., edaphic, climatic (termed cline), geographic (termed variety)

Edaphic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Refers to the soil.

Edge Effect Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The influence of one adjoining plant community upon the margin of another affecting the composition and density of the populations. cf. ecotone (2) The effect executed by adjoining communities on the population structure within the margin zone. (3) The attraction of such an area to animals.

Effective Precipitation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

That portion of total precipitation that becomes available for plant growth. It does not include precipitation lost to deep percolation below the root zone or to surface runoff or to evaporation or which falls during the dormant season unless stored in the soil for later use during the growing season.

Effective Rainfall Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. effective precipitation

Emergency Feeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Supplying feed to range animals when available forage is insufficient because of heavy storms, fires or other such emergencies. cf. maintenance feeding, supplemental feeding

Enclosure Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area fenced to confine animals.

Endemic (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Native to or restricted to a particular area, region or country.

Energy Budget Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The balance of energy input and utilization within an organism, community, or system.

Environment (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The sum of all external conditions that affect an organism or community to influence its development or existence.

Epinasty Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The bending or twisting of twigs or leaf petiole or blades; often used in diagnosis of herbicidal effects on plants.

Eradication (plant) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Complete kill or removal of a noxious plant from an area, including all plant structures capable of sexual or vegetative reproduction.

Erosion Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) Detachment and movement of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, or gravity. (n.) The land surface worn away by running water, wind, ice, or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitational creep.

Escarpment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A steep slope or ridge, terminating high lands abruptly, which was formed by erosion or by faulting.

Esophageal-Cannula Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A device used for maintenance and closure of an esophageal fistula.

Esophageal-Fistula Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A permanent, surgically established opening in the esophagus of an animal used for collecting diet samples. cf. esophageal-cannula

Essential Element Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A chemical element which is necessary for the life of an organism.

Evapotranspiration Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The actual total loss of water by evaporation from soil, water bodies, and transpiration from vegetation, over a given area with time.

Evergreen (plant) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant that has leaves all year round, and generally sheds them in a single season after new leaves of the current growing season have matured. cf. deciduous

Exclosure Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area fenced to exclude animals.

Excretion Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process of eliminating waste material from the body.

Exempt Stock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Livestock which are permitted to graze on federal land free of charge. Usually confined to animals actually used for domestic purposes: saddle horses, milk cows, etc.

Exotic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An organism or species which is not native to the region in which it is found.

Exposure (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Direction of slope with respect to points of a compass.

Extensive Grazing Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labor, resources, or capital. cf. intensive grazing management

Fattening Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range devoted primarily to fattening of livestock for market. archaic

Fauna Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The animal life of a region. A listing of animal species of a region.

Feces (faeces) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Waste material voided through the anus.

Feed (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(n.) Any non-injurious, edible material having nutritive value when ingested (v.) The act of providing feed to animals.

Feed Ground Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A designated place on a range where livestock are fed.

Feed Reserve Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Feed stored for future use. cf. forage reserve

Feral (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Escaped from cultivation or domestication and existing in the wild. cf. acclimatized species

Fibrous Root System Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant root system having a large number of small, finely divided, widely spreading roots, but no large taproots. Typified by grass root system. cf. taproot system

Firebreak Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A natural or man-made barrier used to prevent or retard the spread of fire, that is in existence or made before a fire occurs. It is usually created by the removal of vegetation. cf. fireline, fuelbreak

Fireline Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A narrow line, 2 to 10 feet wide, from which all vegetation is removed by soil sterilization, yearly maintenance, treatment with a suitable fire retardant, or clearing just before ignition of a prescribed burn.

First-Last Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A method of utilizing two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area. Syn. leader-follower; preference-follower; top and bottom grazing.

Flexibility Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Characteristics of a management plan which allow it to accommodate changing conditions.

Flock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A group of sheep managed in fenced pastures and not herded. cf. band

Flora Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The plant species of an area. (2) A simple list of plant species or a taxonomic manual.

Flushing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Improving the nutrition of female breeding animals prior to and during the breeding season to stimulate ovulation.

Fluvial Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Pertaining to or produced by the action of a stream or river.

Fly Camp Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A secondary division of a main camp, generally more temporary than the central establishment. archaic

Foliage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The green or live leaves of plants; mass leaves, leafage.

Foliar Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The percentage of ground covered by the vertical projection of the aerial portion of plants. Small openings in the canopy and intraspecific overlap are excluded. Foliar cover is always less than canopy cover; either may exceed 100%. Syn. Cover

Forage (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(n.) Browse and herbage which is available and may provide food for grazing animals or be harvested for feeding. (v.) To search for or consume forage. cf. (v.) browse, graze

Forage Accumulation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The increase in forage mass per unit area over a specified period of time. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.

Forage Allocation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The planning process or act of apportioning available forage among various kinds of animals, e.g., elk and cattle.

Forage Allowance Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The relationship between the weight of forage dry matter per unit area and the number of animal units at any one point in time; a forage-to-animal relationship. The inverse of grazing pressure. May be expressed as forage mass per animal unit (forage mass/animal unit at a specific time). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.

Forage Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A crop of cultivated plants or plant parts, other than separated grain, produced to be grazed or harvested for use as feed for animals.

Forage Inventory Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An estimate of available forage in each pasture and for the operating unit as a whole; used to project stocking rates and feed requirements for specific time periods (i.e., annually, grazing season, rotation cycle, etc.). cf. grazing inventory

Forage Mass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The total dry weight of forage per unit area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage. cf. available forage, herbage

Forage Production Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The weight of forage that is produced within a designated period of time on a given area. The weight may be expressed as either green, air-dry, or oven-dry. The term may also be modified as to time of production such as annual, current year's, or seasonal forage production.

Forage Reserve Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Standing forage specifically maintained for future or emergency use.

Forage Use Factor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An index to the grazing use that may be made for forage species that will maintain economically important forage species or to achieve other management objectives.

Forb Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any broad-leafed herbaceous plant other than those in the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae families. cf. legume

Forest Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing.

Forested Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forestland that produces, at least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation suitable for forage and that can be grazed without significantly impairing wood production and other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range

Forestland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land on which the vegetation is dominated by trees or, if trees are lacking, the land shows historic evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other uses.

Forward Creep Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A method of creep grazing in which dams and offspring rotate through a series of paddocks with offspring as first grazers and dams as last grazers. A specific form of first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing

Free Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range open to grazing regardless of ownership and without payment of fees. Not to be confused with open range.

Free-Ranging Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Ability to roam or forage at will, unrestricted by fences. cf. open herding

Frequency Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ratio between the number of sample units that contain a species and the total number of sample units.

Fresh Mulch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The primary layer of bulky, coarse, largely un-decayed herbage residuum. cf. mulch and humic mulch

Fresh Weight Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The weight of plant materials at the time of harvest. Syn. green weight

Frontal Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A grazing method that allocated forage within a land area by means of a sliding fence that livestock can advance to gain access to ungrazed forage.

Fuelbreak Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A strategically located block or strip on which existing flammable vegetation has been replaced by vegetation of lower fuel volume and/or flammability and subsequently maintained as an aid to fire control. cf. fireline

Full Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The maximum use during a grazing season that can be made of range forage under a given grazing program without inducing a downward trend in range condition or successional status.

Game Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Wild birds, fish, and other animals taken for sport or for use as food. (2) Wildlife species so designated by law and the harvest of which is regulated by law. cf. wildlife

Game Cropping Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Use of game animals in a wild state through harvesting them to keep populations in check and to reduce extreme cycles in numbers.

Game Ranching Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Use of game animals under semidomestication to control breeding, health, nutrition, and production as a ranch-based enterprise.

Game Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range that is predominantly grazed or browsed by wildlife seasonally or year around. Especially pertinent with migratory big game herds, e.g., winter elk or deer range.

Game Refuge Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area set aside as a sanctuary for game.

Geographic Information System (GIS) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A spatial type of information management system which provides for the entry, storage, manipulation, retrieval, and display of spatially oriented data.

Grade (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) In livestock breeding, an offspring resulting from mating a purebred with a non-purebred or from mating animals not purebred but having close purebred ancestors. (2) In livestock marketing, a classification based on three fundamentals-conformation, finish, and quality-such as prime, choice, good, standard, etc. (3) To evaluate live animals in relation to a standard of quality.

Graminoid Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grass or grass-like plant, such as Poa, Carex and Juncus species.

Grass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Members of the plant family Poaceae.

Grass-like Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant of the Cyperaceae or Juncaceae families which vegetatively resembles a true grass of the Poaceae family.

Grassland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land on which the vegetation is dominated by grasses, grass like plants, and/or forbs (cf. dominant). Lands not presently grassland that were originally or could become grassland through natural succession may be classified as potential natural grassland.

Gravel Cobble Stones Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

As defined in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Conservation Service 1975): Gravel (2 mm-7.5 cm or 3 inches), cobble (7.5-25 cm; 3-10 inches), stones over 25 cm; 10 inches ). (Note: For standard range inventory procedures it is recommended that gravel smaller that 5 mm in diameter be classed as bare ground in cover determinations.)

Grazable Forestland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forestland on which the understory includes, as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range, forest range

Grazable Woodland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forestland on which the understory includes as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable forestland, forested range, woodland range

Graze Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) (vi.) The consumption of standing forage by livestock or wildlife. (2) (vt.) To put livestock to feed on standing forage.

Grazer Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A grazing animal.

Grazier Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A person who manages grazing animals.

Grazing (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(vt.) To graze.

Grazing Animal Concentration Index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The inverse of the grazing fraction, i.e., (l/GF). Abbr. GACI

Grazing Behavior (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The foraging response elicited from a herbivore by its interaction with its surrounding environment.

Grazing Capacity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance, in a specified grazing method, based on total nutrient resources available, including harvested roughages and concentrates, that can be applied over a defined period without deterioration of the ecosystem. A description of the grazing capacity should include stocking rate, grazing method, targeted animal performance and nongrazed nutrient resources.

Grazing Cycle Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The time elapsed between the beginning of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period.

Grazing Distribution Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Dispersion of livestock grazing within a management unit or area.

Grazing District Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) An administrative unit of Federal range established by the Secretary of Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended. (2) An administrative unit of state, private, or other rangelands, established under certain state laws.

Grazing Event Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The length of time that an animal grazes without stopping. cf. grazing period

Grazing Fee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A charge, usually on a monthly basis, for grazing use by a given kind of animal.

Grazing Fraction Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The fraction of land in a single grazing system which is being grazed at any time. Abbr. GF cf. grazing animal concentration index

Grazing License or Permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Official written permission to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified period on a defined allotment or management area. cf. annual, temporary, and term license or permit

Grazing Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The manipulation of animal grazing in pursuit of a defined objective.

Grazing Management Plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A program of action designed to secure the best practicable use of the forage resources with grazing or browsing animals.

Grazing Management Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The grazing land area used to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions. cf. paddock, pasture

Grazing Method Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A defined procedure or technique of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s). One or more grazing methods can be utilized within a grazing system.

Grazing Period Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The length of time that grazing livestock or wildlife occupy a specific land area. cf. grazing event

Grazing Permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. grazing license

Grazing Preference Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Selection of certain plants, or plant parts, over others by grazing animals. (2) In the administration of public lands, a basis upon which permits and licenses are issued for grazing use. cf. palatability, grazing privilege and grazing right

Grazing Pressure Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage at any instant, i.e., AU/kg or ton.

Grazing Pressure Index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage over a period of time, i.e., AU/kg or ton.

Grazing Privilege Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Permissive use of lands for grazing by livestock. cf. grazing right

Grazing Right Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A right to graze specified lands, permanently vested in the beneficiary as specified by the terms of the law or contract.

Grazing Season Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The time period during which grazing can normally be practiced each year or portion of each year. (2) On U.S. public lands, an established period for which grazing permits are issued. It may be the whole year or a very short time span, and is normally a function of forage mass and climate. In this context, the vegetative growing season may be only a part of the grazing season.

Grazing Survey Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The systematic collection of data pertaining to forage resources and other information pertinent to range management. May be either extensive or intensive grazing survey. cf. range survey, forage inventory

Grazing System Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A specialization of grazing management which defines the periods of grazing and non-grazing. Descriptive common names may be used; however, the first usage of a grazing system name in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should consist of at least the following: the number of pastures (or units); number of herds; length of grazing periods; length of non-grazing periods for any given unit in the system followed by an abbreviation of the unit of time used. cf. deferred grazing, deferred-rotation, rotation, rest-rotation, and short duration grazing

Grazing Trespass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The grazing of livestock on a range area without proper authority, and resulting from a willful or negligent act. cf. unauthorized use

Grazing Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area of land, public or private, which is grazed as an entity.

Grazingland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any vegetated land that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed by animals.

Grazingland Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazingland.

Ground Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The percentage of material, other than bare ground, covering the land surface. It may include live and standing dead vegetation, litter, cobble, gravel, stones and bedrock. Ground cover plus bare ground would total 100 percent.

Ground Datum Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A point on the earth's surface used as reference for measuring the height of aerial photography and for calculating photo scale.

Ground Truth

Measurements or observations made on the ground for the purpose of verifying interpretations made from aerial photography or remote sensing.

Ground Water Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation. The top surface of the ground water is the water table. Source of water for wells, seepage, springs.

Growing season Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Period of active growth.

Growth Form Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The characteristic shape or appearance of an organism.

Growth regulator

A growth regulator is a natural or synthetic compound that regulates plant or insect growth. A growth retardant is a natural or synthetic compound that reduces or stops plant growth. A plant growth regulator (PGR) can be naturally produced by the plant (a hormone), or synthesized and applied to the plant. Poinsettias are often sprayed with PGRs before sale, to keep the plants small enough to be shipped without excessive plant breakage.

Grubbing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The act of removing roots, whether woody or herbaceous, by man or animal.

Gully Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A furrow, channel or miniature valley, usually with steep sides through which water commonly flows during and immediately after rains or snow melt. cf. arroyo and coulee

Guzzler Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A device for collecting and storing precipitation for use by wildlife or livestock. Usually, consists of an impenetrable water collecting area, a storage facility and a trough from which animals can drink. Syn. raintrap, catchment basin. cf. trick tank

Habitat (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The natural abode of a plant or animal, including all biotic, climatic, and edaphic factors affecting life.

Habitat Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The collective area which one plant association occupies or will come to occupy as succession advances. The habitat type is defined and described on the basis of the vegetation and its associated environment. The concept was developed by Rexford Daubenmire. Habitat type is similar in concept to ecological site. The difference depends mainly on how specifically plant associations are defined. Habitat type is often misused to refer to classification of vegetation or wildlife habitat rather than a land classification.

Half-Shrub Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A perennial plant with a woody base whose annually produced stems die each year.

Hard Seed Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A physiological condition of seed in which some viable seeds do not immediately absorb water or oxygen and germination is delayed when a favorable environment is provided. Non-synonymous with seed dormancy.

Hardiness Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ability to survive exposure to adverse conditions.

Hardpan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A hardened soil layer in the lower A or in the B horizon caused by cementation of soil particles with organic matter or with materials such as silica, sesquioxides, or calcium carbonate. The hardness does not change appreciably with changes in moisture content, and pieces of the hard layer do not crumble in water. cf. caliche

Harvest Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Removal of animal or vegetation products from an area of land.

Headfiring Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Ignition of a fire on the windward (upwind) side of a burn area, resulting in a fairly rapid moving fire. cf. backfiring

Heavy Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is relatively greater than that of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean overuse. cf. light and moderate grazing

Hedged Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A term used to describe the appearance of woody plants that have been repeatedly browsed so as to appear artificially clipped.

Hedging Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The persistent browsing of terminal buds of browse species causing excessive lateral branching and a reduction in main stem growth.

Herb Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any flowering plant except those developing persistent woody stems above ground.

Herbaceous Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

1. Non-woody plant growth. 2. A term often used to describe the flavors in wine or grapes which resemble leafy, or vegetative flavors.

Herbage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The aboveground material of any herbaceous plant.

Herbage Allowance Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Weight of forage available per unit animal on the land at any instant.

Herbage Disappearance Rate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The rate per unit area at which herbage leaves the standing crop due to grazing, senescence or other causes. Unit: kg/ha/d, or lbs/ac/d.

Herbage Growth Rate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The rate of addition of new mass per unit area to the standing crop. Unit: kg/ha/d or lb/ac/d.

Herbicide (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A phytotoxic chemical used for killing or inhibiting the growth of plants.

Herbivore (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An animal that subsists principally or entirely on plants or plant materials.

Herd Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An assemblage of animals usually of the same species.

Herder Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who tends livestock on a range. Usually applied to the person herding a band of sheep or goats.

Herding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The handling or tending of a herd. cf. close, open and trail herding

Highlining Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Browseline

Historical Climax Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The plant community considered to best typify the potential plant community of an ecological site prior to the advent of European man. May no longer be one of the potential plant communities for the site.

Holding Ground Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area where livestock are often held during roundups.

Holistic Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Holistic Management is a practical, goal-oriented approach to the management of the ecosystem including the human, financial and biological resources. Holistic Management entails the use of a management model which incorporates a holistic view of land, people and other resources. Holistic Management is now the correct name for the approach formerly called Holistic Resource Management.

Home Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The area over which an animal normally travels in search of food.

Humic Mulch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Decayed and fragmented residuum of fresh mulch. cf. mulch, humus

Humus Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The organic fraction of soil in which decomposition is so far advanced that its original form is not distinguishable.

Hurdle System Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A term sometimes applied to the method of handling sheep by means of a wolf-proof fence. archaic

Hybrid (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Offspring of a cross between genetically dissimilar individuals.

Hybrid Vigor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The increased performance (rate of gain) associated with F1 crossbreeding.

Ice-Cream Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An exceptionally palatable species sought and grazed frequently by livestock or game animals. Such species are often over utilized under proper grazing.

Increaser Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

For a given plant community, those species that increase in amount as a result of a specific abiotic/biotic influence or management practice.

Indian Allotment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land held under the Indian Allotment Act of 1910, either patented or held in trust for an Indian by the government.

Indicator Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Species that indicate the presence of certain environmental conditions, seral stages, or previous treatment. (2) One or more plant species selected to indicate a certain level of grazing use. cf. key species

Indigenous Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Born, growing, or produced naturally (native) in an area, region, or country. cf. endemic

Infestation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Invasion by large numbers of parasites or pests.

Infiltration Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The flow of a fluid into a substance through pores of small openings. It connotes flow into a substance in contradistinction to the word percolation.

Infiltration rate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The rate of movement of water from the soil surface into soil.

Infiltration Velocity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The actual rate at which water enters the soil at any given time. It may be less than infiltration rate because of limited supply of water. Expressed in same units as infiltration rates.

Ingesta Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Nutritive materials consumed by the animal.

Intensive Grazing Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing management that attempts to increase production or utilization per unit area or production per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, forage utilization, labor, resources, or capital. Intensive grazing management is not synonymous with rotation grazing. Grazing management can be intensified by using any one or more of a number of grazing methods that use relatively more labor or capital resources. cf. extensive grazing management

Intermittent Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A method that imposed grazing for indefinite periods at irregular intervals.

Interseeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Seeding into an established vegetation cover. Often is planting seeds into the center of narrow seedbed strips of variable spacing and prepared by mechanical or chemical methods.

Introduced Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A species not a part of the original fauna or flora of the area in question. cf. native and resident species

Invader Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Plant species that were absent in undisturbed portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will invade or increase following disturbance or continued heavy grazing. cf. increaser

Invasion Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The migration of organisms from one area to another area and their establishment in the latter. cf. ecesis

Isolated Land Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land.

Karren Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Surface composed of blocks of limestone separated by narrow fissures. archaic

Karst Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A limestone plateau marked by sinks, or karst holes, interspersed with abrupt ridges and irregular protuberant rocks; usually underlain by caverns and underground streams. archaic

Key Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A relatively small portion of a range selected because of its location, use or grazing value as a monitoring point for grazing use. It is assumed that key areas, if properly selected, will reflect the overall acceptability of current grazing management over the range.

Key management Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Plant species on which management of a specific unit is based.

Key Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Forage species whose use serves as an indicator to the degree of use of associated species. (2) Those species which must, because of their importance, be considered in the management program.

Kid Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The number of kids produced by a given number of does, usually expressed in percent kids weaned of does exposed. cf. calf crop, lamb crop

Kid House Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A small structure designed to give shelter to a newborn kid. The doe is staked so that she cannot abandon the kid.

Kind of Animal Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An animal species or species group such as sheep, cattle, goats, deer, horses, elk, antelope, etc. cf. class of animal

Lamb Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The number of lambs produced by a given number of ewes, usually expressed in percent of lambs weaned of ewes exposed. cf. calf crop, kid crop

Lambing Ground Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range reserved for grazing during lambing period.

Land Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The total natural and cultural environment within which production takes place; a broader term than soil. In addition to soil, its attributes include other physical conditions, such as mineral deposits, climate, and water supply; location in relation to centers of commerce, populations, and other land; the size of the individual tracts or holdings; and existing plant cover, works of improvement, and the like. Some use the term loosely in other senses; as defined above but without the economic or cultural criteria; especially in the expression "natural land"; as a synonym for "soil"; for the solid surface of the earth; and also for earthly surface formations, especially in geomorphological expression "land form."

Land Capability Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land capability, as originally used in the United States, is an expression of the effect of physical land conditions, including climate, on the total suitability for use without damage for crops that require regular tillage, for grazing, for woodland, and for wildlife. Land capability involves consideration of (1) the risks of land damage from erosion and other causes and (2) the difficulties in land use owing to physical land characteristics, including climate.

Land Use Incentives Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A method for implementing land use plans in which a governmental unit offers inducements, usually monetary, to private landowners for adopting certain land uses or practices.

Land Use Planning (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process by which decisions are made on future land uses over extended time periods that are deemed to best serve the general welfare. Decision-making authorities on land uses are usually vested in state and local governmental units, but citizen participation in the planning process is essential for proper understanding and implementation, usually through zoning ordinances.

LD50 Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The relative degree of toxicity of pesticides to warm-blooded animals defined as the single dosage by mouth that kills 50 percent of test animals, expressed as mg/kg of body weight.

Leaf Area Index (LAI) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ratio of the total upper leaf surface of the plant community to the corresponding ground area expressed as a proportion. LAI may exceed 1.

Legume (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Members of the plant family Fabaceae.

Lessee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who has specified rights or privileges under lease. Syn. Permittee

Lessor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who leases specified rights or privileges.

License Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

See grazing license or permit.

Life-Form Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Characteristic form or appearance of species at maturity, e.g., tree, shrub, herb, etc.

Light Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of one pasture is relatively less than that of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean under use. cf. heavy and moderate grazing

Lime Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Calcium oxide. (2) All limestone-derived materials applied to neutralize acid soils.

Limiting Factor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any environmental factor which exists at suboptimal level and thereby prevents an organism from reaching its full biotic potential.

Lister Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A double-wing plow, the shares of which throw the soil in opposite directions, leaving the land with a series of alternate ridges and furrows. Lister bottoms are commonly used to open a furrow for interseeding native range.

Litter (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The uppermost layer of organic debris on the soil surface; essentially the freshly fallen or slightly decomposed vegetal material.

Livestock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Domestic animals.

Livestock Exclusion Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Range that is closed to grazing by livestock. Syn. closed range

Livestock Flexibility Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ability to alter the number, kind, or class of animals within a livestock enterprise as warranted by variability in forage, economic, weather, or other conditions.

Livestock Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Application of technical principles and business methods to livestock production.

Livestock Production Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The weight, number of animals, etc., that a particular range, seeded pasture, or management system produces. (2) The business of producing livestock.

Maintenance Burning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of prescribed burning to maintain vegetation in a desired condition.

Maintenance Feeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Supplying feed to range animals when available forge is too limited to meet their minimum daily requirement. Usually necessitated by overuse or inclement weather. cf. emergency feeding and supplemental feeding

Management Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area for which a single management plan is developed and applied.

Management Objective Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The objectives for which rangeland and rangeland resources are managed which includes specified uses accompanied by a description of the desired vegetation and the expected products and/or values.

Management Plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A program of action designed to reach a given set of objectives. cf. grazing management plan

Management Site Potential Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The kinds or levels of productivity or values of a range site that can be achieved under various management prescriptions.

Management Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A subdivision of a management area.

Marginal Land Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land of questionable physical or economic capabilities for sustaining a specific use.

Marker Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A colored or otherwise marked sheep in a range band. (2) Dye, foam, or paper strips to indicate area covered in earlier pass of sprayer. (3) An infertile (vasectomized) male animal, often equipped with a dye marker, used to identify ovulating females for artificial insemination.

Marking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any method, other than branding, of placing a sign on an animal for the purpose of identification. For example: ear slits, tags, wattles, etc. cf. brand, earmarking and tagging

Marsh(land) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Flat, wet, treeless land usually covered by water and dominated by marsh grasses, indigenous rushes, sedges, or other grass-like plants.

Mast Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Fruits and seed of shrubs, woody vines, trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal consumption.

Mature Soil Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A soil with well developed characteristics produced by the natural processes of soil formation, and in equilibrium with its environment. cf. soil

Meadow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A tract of grassland where productivity of indigenous or introduced forage is modified due to characteristics of the landscape position or hydrology. May be characterized as: hay meadow, native meadow, mountain meadow, wet meadow, or other designations. cf. grassland, pasture, pastureland, rangeland

Mesa Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A flat-topped mountain or other elevation bounded on at least one side by a steep cliff. Local in Southwest.

Migrant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One that moves from place to place. Syn. Nomadic

Mixed Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing by two or more species of grazing animals on the same land unit, not necessarily at the same time but within the same grazing season.

Mob Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

In the management of a grazing unit, grazing by a relatively large number of animals at a high stocking density for a short time period.

Moderate Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is between the rates of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean proper use. cf. heavy and light grazing

Monitoring (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The orderly collection, analysis, and interpretation of resource data to evaluate progress toward meeting management objectives. This process must be conducted over time in order to determine whether or not management objectives are being met.

Morphology (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The form and structure of an organism, with special emphasis on external features.

Mottling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Variation of coloration in soils as represented by localized spots, patches, or blotches of contrasting color. Commonly develops under alternating wet and dry periods with associated reduction and oxidation environments. Mottling generally indicates poor aeration and impeded drainage.

Mulch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(n.) (1) A layer of dead plant material on the soil surface. cf. fresh and humic mulch. (2) An artificial layer of material such as paper or plastic on the soil surface. (v.) Cultural practice of placing rock, straw, asphalt, plastic or other material on the soil's surface as a surface cover.

Multiple Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Use of range for more than one purpose, i.e., grazing of livestock, wildlife production, recreation, watershed and timber production. Not necessarily the combination of uses that will yield the highest economic return or greatest unit output. Use of range for more than one purpose, i.e., grazing of livestock, wildlife production, recreation, watershed and timber production. Not necessarily the combination of uses that will yield the highest economic return or greatest unit output.

Native Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A species which is part of the original fauna or flora of the area in question. Syn. Indigenous. cf. introduced and resident species

Natural Pasture Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. RangeOne U.S. technical agency defines this term as formerly forested land that has been allowed to revert to native forage species and is managed primarily for production of native plants for grazing.

Natural Potential Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Occasionally used as a synonym for climax with reference to range vegetation.

Naturalized Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A species not native to an area but which adapted to that area and has established a stable or expanding population. Does not require artificial inputs for survival and reproduction. Examples: cheatgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, starling, etc.

Net Primary Production Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The net increase in plant biomass within a specified area and time interval, i.e. primary production minus that used in metabolic processes.

Niche (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The ecological role of a species in a community.

Nomadic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Pertaining to the habit of wandering from place to place, usually within a well-defined territory. Syn. Migrant

Non-Selective Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Utilization of forage by grazing animals so that all forage species and/or all plants within a species are grazed. cf. mob grazing. Non-selective grazing is generally attempted by using high stocking rates or high stocking densities during short time periods. In practice, non-selective grazing is achieved rarely.

Nonuse Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Absence of grazing use on current year's forage production. (2) Lack of exercise, temporarily, of a grazing privilege on grazing lands. (3) An authorization to refrain, temporarily, from placing livestock on public ranges without loss of preference for future consideration.

Noxious Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant species that is undesirable because it conflicts, restricts, or otherwise causes problems under management objectives. Not to be confused with species declared noxious by laws concerned with plants that are weedy in cultivated crops and on range.

Nurse Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A temporary crop seeded at or near the time primary plant species are seeded to provide protection and otherwise help to insure establishment of the latter. cf. companion crop, preparatory crop

Nutrient (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any food constituent or ingredient that is required for or aids in the support of life.

Nutrition (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Ingestion, digestion or assimilation of food by plants or animals.

Nutritive Value Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Relative capacity of a given forage or other feedstuff to furnish nutrition for animals. In range management, the term is usually prefixed by high, low or moderate.

Open Herding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Allowing a herd to spread naturally while grazing. cf. free ranging

Open Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) Range which has not been fenced into management units. (2) All suitable rangeland of an area upon which grazing is permitted. (3) Untimbered rangeland. (4) Range on which the livestock owner has unlimited access without benefit of land ownership or leasing.

Opening Date Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) The date on which an established grazing season begins. (2) The date on which a legally established hunting or fishing season begins.

Operating Unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. Ranch

Opportunistic Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A species adapted for utilizing variable, unpredictable or transient environments; tends to be characteristic of ephemeral plants.

Opportunity Cost Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The financial returns given up by not putting a factor of production, particularly capital, to a different use.

Organism Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any living entity; plant, animal, fungus, etc.

Orphan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An offspring whose mother has died.

Outcrop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The exposure of bedrock or strata projecting through the overlying cover of detritus and soil.

Oven-Dry Weight Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The weight of a substance after it has been dried in an oven at a specific temperature to equilibrium.

Overgrazed Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A range which has experienced loss of plant cover and accelerated erosion as a result of heavy grazing or browsing pressure.

Overgrazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Continued heavy grazing which exceeds the recovery capacity of the community and creates a deteriorated range. cf. overuse

Overland Flow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Surface runoff of water following a precipitation event. cf. runoff

Overstocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in overuse if continued to the end of the planned grazing period.

Overstory Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The upper canopy or canopies of plants. Usually refers to trees, tall shrubs and vines.

Overuse Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Utilizing an excessive amount of the current year's growth which, if continued, will result in range deterioration. cf. overgrazing

P.L.S. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Abbreviation for pure live seed.

Paddock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier. (2) A relatively small enclosure used as an exercise and saddling area for horses, generally adjacent to stalls or stable. cf. grazing

Palatability Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The relish with which a particular species or plant part is consumed by an animal.

Pan (Soils) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Horizon or layer in soils that is strongly compacted, indurated, or very high in clay content. cf. caliche, claypan, hardpan

Park Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A relatively small opening of grassland in a forest. (2) A land area reserved and managed to protect an outstanding landscape and to make it available for public enjoyment.

Partial Budgeting (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A limited budgeting procedure used to evaluate a proposed investment in an existing earning enterprise requiring only that additional costs and returns associated with the investment be considered; results often expressed in terms of an internal rate of return.

Partido System Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

In the southwestern United States, a form of operation in which sheep or cattle owned by the patron are let out on shares to a partidero, who cares for them and returns part of the increase or income to the owner. archaic

Pasture Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(1) A grazing area enclosed and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers; the management unit for grazing land. (2) Forage plants used as food for grazing animals. (3) Any area devoted to the production of forage, native or introduced, and harvested by grazing. (4) A group of subunits grazed within a rotational grazing system. (5) v. To feed on pasture; to use as pasture.

Pasture Planting Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Establishing adapted herbaceous species on land to be treated and grazed as pasture.

Pastureland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing lands, planted primarily to introduced or domesticated native forage species, which receive periodic renovation and/or cultural treatments such as tillage, fertilization, mowing, weed control and irrigation.

Pedestaled Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A condition where the soil has eroded from around individual plants or other objects such as small rocks, leaving them on small pedestals of soil. Sometimes the result of frost heaving.

Percent Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing use of current growth, usually expressed as a percent of the current growth (by weight) which has been removed. cf. degree of use

Percolation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The flow of liquid through a porous substance.

Perennial Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant that has a life span of 3 or more years.

Period of Occupation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The length of time that a specific land area is occupied, whether by one animal group or by two or more animal groups in succession. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of stay.

Period of Stay Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The length of time that a particular animal group occupies a specific land area. Period of occupation and period of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area. The term is useful in describing grazing methods such as first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of occupation

Permanent Water Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A watering place which supplies water at all times throughout the year or grazing season.

Permittee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who holds a permit to graze livestock on state, federal, or certain privately owned lands. Syn. Lessee

Pesticide (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any chemical agent such as herbicide, fungicide, insecticide, etc., used for control of specific organisms.

Phenology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

the study of the time of appearance of characteristic periodic phenomena in the life cycle of organisms in nature, e.g., migration in birds and flowering and leaf-fall in plants, particularly as these phenomena are influenced by environmental factors. Phenology especially involves the effects of temperature or day length.

Phenotype (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The physical appearance of an individual as contrasted with genetic makeup or genotype.

Phenoxy Herbicide Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. translocated herbicide

Photo Interpretation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The art and science of identifying objects and conditions from photographs.

Photo Scale

Photo scale, or representative fraction (RF), is the ratio of the distance measured on the photograph to the distance measured at the ground datum. Photo scale can also be defined as the ratio of the focal length of the camera to the height of the lens above the ground datum at the moment of exposure.

Photogrammetry Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Measurements made from aerial photographs including area measurements, distance, direction, height or differences in elevation or slope and the processes of mapping.

Photopoint Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An identified point from which photographs are taken at periodic intervals.

Photosensitization Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A non-contagious disease resulting from the abnormal reaction of light-colored skin to sunlight after a photodynamic agent has been absorbed through the animal's system. Grazing certain kinds of vegetation or ingesting certain molds under specific conditions causes photosensitization.

Phylogeny Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The origin and evolution of higher taxa.

Phytomass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Total amount of plants (including dead attached parts) above and below ground in an area at a given time. cf. biomass

Phytomer Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One modular unit of a plant; consisting of the leaf, sheath (or petiole) and internode.

Phytotoxic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Toxic to plants.

Picture Point Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A point that can be exactly identified on an aerial photograph.

Pioneer Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant or animal capable of establishing itself in a bare or barren area and initiating an ecological cycle.

Pitting Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Making shallow pits or basins of suitable capacity and distribution on range to reduce overland flow from rainfall or snowmelt.

Plain Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A broad stretch of relatively level treeless land.

Plant Association Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A kind of climax plant community consisting of stands with essentially the same dominant species in corresponding layers.

Plant Community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, thus denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation.

Plant Community Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

See community type.

Plant Succession Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Vegetation change.

Plant Symbol Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An abbreviation used to indicate the genus and species of a plant.

Plant Vigor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Plant health. cf. plant vigor index

Plant Vigor Index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An estimate of plant vigor based on measurement of one or more attributes.

Poisonous Plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A plant containing or producing substances that cause sickness, death or a deviation from the normal state of health of animals. cf. toxic plant species

Poloxalene Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An anti-foaming agent fed to prevent legume bloat in ruminants.

Potential Natural Community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

See potential natural vegetation.

Potential Natural Vegetation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A historical term originally defined by A. W. Kuchler as the stable vegetation community which could occupy a site under current climatic conditions without further influence by people. Often used interchangeably with Potential Natural Community.

Potential Plant Community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One of usually several plant communities that may become established on an ecological site under the present environmental conditions, either with or without interference by man.

Prairie Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally treeless, and usually characterized by fertile soil.

Precipitation (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Condensation from the atmosphere, falling as rainfall, snow, hail or sleet.

Preference Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

See grazing preference.

Preferred Species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Species that are preferred by animals and are grazed by first choice.

Premature Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing before range readiness; may be allowable if done infrequently and followed by adequate rest.

Preparatory Crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A residue-producing temporary crop utilized as part of seedbed preparation to provide mulch into which forage plants can be direct seeded.

Prescribed Burning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of fire as a management tool under specified conditions for burning a predetermined area. cf. maintenance burning

Primary Production Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. It is represented by the total quantity of organic material produced within a given period by vegetation.

Primary Productivity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The rate of conversion of solar to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Primary Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Areas which animals prefer to use when management is limited. Primary range will be overused before secondary range is fully used.

Prior Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing use preceding a specific time.

Priority Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The order of right or privilege to use land based on occupancy, use prior to a certain date, need or other criteria.

Pristine Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A state of ecological stability or condition existing in the absence of direct disturbance by modern man.

Problem Area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An area which is difficult to manage because of its shape, size, accessibility or other limiting factors.

Producer Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An organism that can use radiant energy to synthesize organic substances from inorganic materials, e.g. green plants.

Productivity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The rate of production per unit area, usually expressed in terms of weight or energy.

Propagule Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any part of an organism, produced sexually or asexually that is capable of giving rise to a new individual.

Proper Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The act of continuously obtaining proper use.

Proper Stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in proper use at the end of the planned grazing period. Continued proper stocking will lead to proper grazing.

Proper Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A degree of utilization of current year's growth which, if continued, will achieve management objectives and maintain or improve the long-term productivity of the site. Proper use varies with time and systems of grazing. Syn. proper utilization, proper grazing use, cf. allowable use

Proper Use Factor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An index to the grazing use that may be made of a specific forage species, based on a system of range management that will maintain the economically important forage species, or achieve other management objectives such as maintenance of watersheds, recreation values, etc.

Proper Woodland Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Grazing, where woodland grazing is a planned use, at an intensity that will maintain adequate cover for soil protection and maintain or improve the quantity of trees and forage.

Pure Live Seed Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Purity and germination of seed expressed in percent; may be calculated by formula: P.L.S.= % germination x % purity x 100, e.g. (0.91 x 0.96) x 100 = 87.36%. Abbr., PLS or P.L.S. cf. seed purity

Put-and-Take Stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The use of variable animal numbers during a grazing period or grazing season, with a periodic adjustment in animal numbers in an attempt of maintaining desired sward management criteria, i.e., a desired quantity of forage, degree of defoliation, or grazing pressure.

Quiescence Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A temporary resting phase characterized by reduced activity, inactivity or cessation of development.

Rain Shadow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The region of diminished rainfall on the lee side of a mountain range, where the rainfall is noticeably less than on the windward side.

Raintrap Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. guzzler; catchment basin; cf. trick tank

Ranch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An establishment or firm with specific boundaries together with its lands and improvements, used for the grazing and production of domestic livestock and/or wildlife.

Rancher Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One who owns, leases or manages a ranch.

Range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(n.) Land supporting indigenous vegetation that either is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem. Range includes grassland, grazable forestland, shrubland and pastureland. Range is not a use. (adj.) Modifies resources, products, activities, practices, and phenomena pertaining to rangeland. cf. rangeland, forested range, grazable woodland, shrubland, pastureland

Range Administration Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The conduct of the affairs of a range.

Range Appraisal Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The classification and valuation of rangeland from an economic or production standpoint.

Range Condition Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Historically, has usually been defined in one of two ways: (a) a generic term relating to present status of a unit of range in terms of specific values or potentials. Specific values or potentials must be stated. (b) the present state of vegetation of a range site in relation to the climax (natural potential) plant community for that site. It is an expression of the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of plants in a plant community resemble that of the climax plant community for the site. This term is being phased out. Preferred terms are successional status and range similarity index.

Range Condition Class Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

One of a series of arbitrary categories used to classify range condition as that term has been variously defined. See range condition.

Range Degradation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process that leads to an irreversible reduction in capability of an ecological site to produce vegetation.

Range Discipline Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A branch of knowledge pertaining to the use and management of range. Syn. range management

Range Examiner Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A person who collects and compiles information pertaining to range management and who prepares grazing management plans. Syn. range manager; range conservationist. Archaic

Range Forage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Forage produced on rangeland. cf. forage, cured forage

Range Improvement Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Any activity or program on or relating to rangelands which is designed to improve production of forage, change vegetation composition, control patterns of use, provide water, stabilize soil and water conditions, or provide habitat for livestock and wildlife.

Range Lambing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Permitting females to drop their offspring on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage. cf. shed lambing

Range Management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A distinct discipline founded on ecological principles and dealing with the use of rangelands and range resources for a variety of purposes. These purposes include use as watersheds, wildlife habitat, grazing by livestock, recreation, and aesthetics, as well as other associated uses.

Range Plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. management plan

Range Readiness Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The defined stage of plant growth at which grazing may begin under a specific management plan without permanent damage to vegetation or soil. Usually applied to seasonal range.

Range Research Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

A systematic, critical inquiry seeking facts and knowledge pertinent of range.

Range Reseeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. range seeding

Range Resources Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. related resources

Range Science Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The organized body of knowledge upon which the practice of range management is based.

Range Seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The process of establishing vegetation by the artificial dissemination of seed.

Range Site Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Syn. of ecological site on rangeland

Range States Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

In the U.S., generally considered as the seventeen western states excluding Alaska and Hawaii. In these states, the major portion of the land is used for the production of livestock from range.

Range Type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

An historical term that refers to, and only to, the 18 standard range vegetation types recognized by the 1937 Task Force (Interagency Range Survey Committee, 1937).

Range User Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The individual or organization using rangeland for a specific purpose. Most commonly associated with one having a permit to graze livestock on public land, but a hunter may also be considered a range user.

Rangeland (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Land on which the indigenous vegetation (climax or natural potential) is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs and is managed as a natural ecosystem. If plants are introduced, they are managed similarly. Rangeland includes natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes and meadows.

Rangeland Health Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The degree to which the integrity of the soil, the vegetation, the water, and air as well as the ecological processes of the rangeland ecosystem is balanced and sustained. Integrity is defined as: Maintenance of the structure and functional attributes characteristic of a particular locale, including normal variability.

Rangeland Hydrology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The study of hydrological principles as applied to range ecosystems.

Rangeland Inventory (rangelands) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

(v.) The systematic acquisition and analysis of resource information needed for planning and for management of rangeland. (n.) The information acquired through range inventory.

Rangeland Remote Sensing

The detection, identification and assessment of condition of objects on rangelands with a camera, or other imaging device, situated at an appreciable distance from the imaged subject.

Rangeland Renovation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Improving rangeland by mechanical, chemical or other means.

Rangeland Similarity Index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the historic climax plant community for the site. Syn. range condition

Ration Grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.

Confining animals to an area of grazing land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal. cf. stri