Angle of Points
With most techniques involving point sampling to estimate cover, points are placed vertically to the ground. However, some studies indicate that points inclined at about a 45° angle provide more accurate data for the cover of narrow-leaved species, particularly grasses.
References and Further Reading
Bonham, C.D. Measurements of terrestrial vegetation. John Wiley Sons, New York, NY. p 111-115.
Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative plant ecology. Academic Press, New York, NY. pp 41-45.
Warren-Wilson, J. 1963. Estimation of foliage denseness and foliage angle by inclined point quadrats. Australian Journal of Botany 11:95-105.
Winkworth, R.E. 1955. The use of point quadrats for the analysis of heath land. Australian Journal of Botany 3:68-81.