Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh. subsp. monilifera) population dynamics were measured inside and outside of 4 exclosures along the Wild and Scenic portion of the Missouri River in Montana to determine the impacts of livestock grazing on cottonwood recruitment in this river's riparian zone. Cottonwood seedlings (of four age classes) were sampled during August 15 and September 1. Elevation measurements were taken annually, at 1-m intervals along a transect to determine net erosion of deposition. Grazing use of the site was recorded as ungrazed or grazed.
Citations and enhanced abstracts for journals articles and documents focused on rangeland ecology and management. RSIS is a collaboration between Montana State University, University of Idaho, and University of Wyoming.