Effects of streambank fencing on reptile and amphibian species richness, abundance, and biomass were investigated within and around the Pike Run watershed of southwestern Pennsylvania. This was done on 10 grazed and 10 recently protected (1 to 2 growing seasons) streams and associated riparian areas during spring and summer (1998-1999). Unfenced sites were grazed continuously with an average stocking rate of 0.40 animals/ha and on fenced sites livestock grazing was excluded for 1-2 yrs. Vegetation, water quality, and macroinvertebrate populations were measured as livestock grazing impacts communities of herpetofauna by influencing these factors. At 20 randomly located plots during the second week of each month (April-July) litter cover (%), herbaceous ground cover (%), vertical obstruction, and vegetation height were measured. Aquatic and terrestrial macrovertebrates were sampled from April-July.
Effect of streambank fencing on herpetofauna in pasture stream zones