To better understand the aspects of livestock grazing that lead to riparian and stream degradation, four treatments (grazed and trampled, trampled, mowed and control) were tested along Sheep Creek in the Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado (40Ã‚Â° 59.725' N, 105Ã‚Â° 43.265' W). Three heifers grazed and trampled (or just trampled) for eight hours, while mowed treatments had vegetation removed to 10 cm with a lawnmower. Simulated rainfall was applied before treatment and then again 24 hours following treatment. Overland flow and runoff were measured for each of the simulated rainfall events. Microtopography, soil bulk density, soil moisture, organic matter, vegetation density and biomass, basal stem widths, and microchannels were measured in the plots before and after treatments.
Hydrologic responses of a montane riparian ecosystem following cattle use